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Aug 2

What were the early Sewage Treatment technologies in practice?

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Toward the start of the twentieth century, STP mainly used settling tanks (primary treatment) to take away suspended particles from the wastewater sooner than discharge to streams and rivers. In the early 1900s, about 1,000,000 other folks in the United States were served through 60 such STPs.

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  • a. Selection of process The selection of specific unit processes depends on the nature of the sewage water , including degradability and treatability by selected processes plus the selection also depends on the discharge requirements . Other important factors for selecting any stp design are environmental impact , land availability , projected life of plant design and cost. All the relevant factors in process selection should be considered , although their relative importance will vary due to social , environmental , political differences as well as technological availability and expertise. b. Design of Biological reactor . The rate at which components of wastewater , such as organic matter are removed and the rate at which biomass is produced within a reactor are important criteria in the design and calculation of the size of biological reactors . c. Environmental Factors Affection growth. A number of environmental factors affect the activity of wastewater microbial populations and the rate of biochemical reaction. The factors include temperature , pH , Dissolved Oxygen , nutrient concentration and inhibition by toxic compounds. It is possible to control all these factors within a biological treatment system , except temperature .
  • After primary treatment the settled sewage water enters a specially designed reactor where it is mixed to a dense microbial population under aerobic conditions. Micro organisms , mainly bacteria convert soluble and colloidal organic matter into new cells . Now all that is required is to separate the dense microbial biomass from the purified wastewater . This is done by clarifier ( tube settler , lamella clarifier , upflow filter ) . The sludge from the clarifier is very different from the primary sludge , being composed mainly of biological cells rather than gross faecal solids . There are many different biological technologies available for sewage treatment including fixed film reactors , activated sludge systems , stabilization ponds eg . SAFF , FAB STP , Moving Bed Bioreactor MBBR based Sewage Treatment Plant , MBR , SBR Membrane Biological Reactor Sewage Treatment Plant
  • 1. To convert the waste materials present in the sewage into stable oxidized end products that can be safely disposed of to inland waters without any adverse ecological effects. 2. To protect public health 3. To ensure wastewater is effectively disposed of on a regular and reliable basis without offence. 4. To recycle and recover the valuable components of the wastewater 5. To provide an economic method of disposal 6. To comply with legal standards and consent conditions placed on dischargers
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