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In the early 1800s, the development of sewers was began in London. In 1843, the primary sewer device, in Hamburg, Germany, was once formally designed by means of a British engineer, Lindley (Anon, 2011). In 17th century Colonial America, household sewage wastewater control consisted of a privy (toilet) with an outlet built at floor degree that discharged outside to a cesspool or a sewer. With low population densities, privies and cesspools built on this method didn't create many problems (Duffy, 1968). But because the inhabitants increment, the desire and need for an engineered device for sewage wastewater control in large cities changed into extra evident. Scientists and public health officers started to know the relationship between illness outbreaks and contamination of consuming water from wastewater . Nuisance caused by means of odors, outbreak of diseases, e.g. cholera, and different public health considerations brought about the design of a comprehensive sewer system in Chicago in the 1850s.
Phosphorous presents in different forms in Effluent Treatment Plant ETP and Sewage Treatment Plants STP soluble phosphorus is most common form. Typical methods for phosphorus removal are: chemical precipitation sedimentation membrane filtration ( Reverse Osmosis ) and biological method depending on in which form phosphorus is present. Biological removal of phosphorus is widely spread as it produces less sludge when compared with other methods. In the conventional treatment process soluble phosphorous present in the wastewater is getting integrated with microbial biomass. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal processes is suggested for wastewater treatment higher amount of phosphorus removal is possible. There are certain factors affecting phosphorus removal via biological method including environmental and operational conditions such as carbon source COD/P ratio temperature pH cations dissolved oxygen solid retention time Carbon Source Availability of carbon in the form of readily biodegradable carbonaceous oxygen demand affects phosphorus removal hence dosage of urea is recommended. COD : Phosphorus Ratio Recommended COD:P ratios between 10–20 mg-COD/mg phosphorus Cations Phosphorus itself is negatively charged hence addition of cation is recommended. Anion having three negative charges. Phosphorus cannot move across the cell membrane because of negatively charged , Its transportation across the microbial membrane need charge neutralization, neutralized ion is transported across the cell membrane. Hence cations increases Phosphorus removal Dissolved Oxygen DO concentrations between 2.5–3.0 mg/L is recommended, higher DO will affect the performance of phosphorus removal